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Xiaofei Lu

Xiaofei Lu

Professor of Applied Linguistics and Asian Studies

Director of Graduate Studies

301 Sparks Building
Office Phone: (814) 865-4692



  • Ph.D., Linguistics, The Ohio State University
  • M.A., English Language, National University of Singapore
  • B.A., English, Nankai University, China

Areas of Specialization

  • Corpus linguistics and computer-assisted language learning
  • Corpus-based and genre-based approaches to EAP writing research and pedagogy
  • Second language writing and second language acquisition

Recent Courses

  • APLNG 589 Technology in Foreign Language Education: An Overview
  • APLNG 588 Design and Research of Technology-Mediated Language Learning
  • APLNG 579 Seminar in Applied Corpus Linguistics
  • APLNG 578 Computational and Statistical Methods for Corpus Analysis
  • APLNG 200 Language, Culture and Social Interaction

Selected Publications


Lu, X., & Chen, B. (Eds.) (2019). Computational and corpus approaches to Chinese language learning. Singapore: Springer.

Lu, X. (2014). Computational methods for corpus annotation and analysis. Dordrecht: Springer.


Liao, J., Lu, X., Master, K., Dudek, J., & Zhou, Z. (forthcoming). Telepresence-place-based foreign language learning and its design principles. Computer Assisted Language Learning.

Shi, B., Huang, L., & Lu, X. (forthcoming). Effect of prompt type on test-takers’ writing performance and writing strategy use in the continuation task. Language Testing.

Lu, X., Casal, J. E., & Liu, Y. (2020). The rhetorical functions of syntactically complex sentences in social science research article introductions. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 44, 1-16.

Dong, J., & Lu, X. (2020). Promoting discipline-specific genre competence with corpus-based genre analysis activities. English for Specific Purposes, 58, 138-154.

Jin, T, Lu, X., & Ni, J. (2020). Syntactic complexity in adapted teaching materials: Differences among grade levels and implications for benchmarking. The Modern Language Journal, 104(1), 192-208.

Liu, Y., & Lu, X. (2020). Chinese EFL learners’ misconceptions of noun countability and article use. System, 90, 1-12.

Peng, J., Wang, C., & Lu, X. (2020). Effect of the linguistic complexity of the input text on alignment, writing fluency, and writing accuracy in the continuation task. Language Teaching Research, 24(3), 364-381.

Lu, X., & Deng, J. (2019). With the rapid development: A contrastive analysis of lexical bundles in dissertation abstracts by Chinese and L1 English doctoral students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 39, 21-36.

Lu, X., & Liu, Y. (2019). Corpus-based research on formulaic language in academic English and its pedagogical applications. Foreign Language World, (5), 30-38.

Jin, T., Shi, Z., & Lu, X. (2019). “From novice storytellers to persuasive arguers”: Learner use of evidence in oral argumentation. TESOL Quarterly, 53(4), 1151-1161.

Zhang, J., & Lu, X. (2019). Measuring and supporting second language development using computerized dynamic assessment. Language and Sociocultural Theory, 6(1), 92-115.

Lu, X., Yoon, J., & Kisselev, O. (2018). A phrase-frame list for social science research article introductions. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 36, 76-85.

Liao, J., & Lu, X. (2018). Exploring the affordances of telepresence robots in foreign language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 22(3), 20-32.

Lu, X., Kisselev, O., Yoon, J., & Amory, M. (2018). Investigating effects of criterial consistency, the diversity dimension, and threshold variation in formulaic language research: Extending the methodological considerations of O’Donnell et al. (2013). International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 23(2), 158-182.

Guo, K., Jin, T., & Lu, X. (2018). Research and practice in text adaptation: From readability formulas and multidimensional analyses to data-driven adaptation. Foreign Language Testing and Teaching, (3), 35-43.

Jiang, J., Jiang, L., & Lu, X. (2018). Automated scoring of students' English-to-Chinese translations of three text types. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 25(3), 238-255.

Jin, T., & Lu, X. (2018). A data-driven approach to text adaptation in teaching material preparation: Design, implementation and teacher professional development. TESOL Quarterly, 52(2), 457-467.

Lu, X. (2017). Automated measurement of syntactic complexity in corpus-based L2 writing research and implications for writing assessment. Language Testing, 34(4), 493-511.

Lu, X., & Wang, B. P.-Y. (2017). Towards a metaphor-annotated corpus of Mandarin Chinese. Language Resources and Evaluation, 51(3), 663-694.

Lu, X., & Xu, Q. (2016). L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and its applications in L2 writing research. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 48(3), 409-420. [in Chinese]

Lu, X., & Ai, H. (2015). Syntactic complexity in college-level English writing: Differences among writers with diverse L1 backgrounds. Journal of Second Language Writing, 29, 16-27.

Park, K., & Lu, X. (2015). Automatic analysis of thematic structure in written English. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 20(1), 82-102.

Poehner, M. E., Zhang, J., & Lu, X. (2015). Computerized Dynamic Assessment (C-DA): Diagnosing L2 development according to learner responsiveness to mediation. Language Testing, 32(3), 337-357.

Stevens, R. J., Lu, X., Baker, D. P., Ray, M. N., Eckert, S. A., & Gamson, D. A. (2015). Assessing the cognitive demands of elementary school reading curricula: An analysis of reading text and comprehension tasks from 1910 to 2000. American Educational Research Journal, 52(3), 582-617.

Yang, W., Lu, X., & Weigle, S. C. (2015). Different topics, different discourse: Relationships among writing topic, measures of syntactic complexity, and judgments of writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 28, 53-67.

Zhang, X., & Lu, X. (2015). The relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 740-753.

Lu, X., Gamson, D. A., & Eckert, S. A. (2014). Lexical difficulty and diversity in American elementary school reading textbooks: Changes over the past century.  International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 19(1), 94-117.

Fernandez, J., Gates-Tapia, A., & Lu, X. (2014). Oral proficiency and pragmatic marker use in L2 spoken Spanish: The case of pues and bueno. Journal of Pragmatics, 74, 150-164.

Hartig, A. J., & Lu, X. (2014). Plain English and legal writing: Comparing expert and novice writers. English for Specific Purposes, 33(1), 87-96.

Zhang, X., & Lu, X. (2014). A longitudinal study of receptive vocabulary breadth knowledge growth and vocabulary fluency development. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 283-304.

Gamson, D. A., Lu, X., & Eckert, S. A. (2013). Challenging the research base of the common core state standards: A historical reanalysis of text complexity. Educational Researcher, 42(7), 381-391.

Zhang, J., & Lu, X. (2013). Variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language learners' development of the Chinese numeral classifier system. The Modern Language Journal, 97(s1), 46-60. 

Lu, X. (2012). The relationship of lexical richness to the quality of ESL learners' oral narratives. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 190-208.

Thorne, S. L., Fischer, I., & Lu, X. (2012). The semiotic ecology and linguistic complexity of an online game world. ReCall, 24(3), 279-301.

Lu, X. (2011). A corpus-based evaluation of syntactic complexity measures as indices of college-level ESL writers’ language development. TESOL Quarterly, 45(1), 36-62.

Lu, X. (2010). Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(4), 474-496.

Lu, X. (2009). Automatic measurement of syntactic complexity in child language acquisition. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics14(1), 3-28.

Lu, X. (2008). Improving part-of-speech guessing of Chinese unknown words using hybrid models.  International Journal of Corpus Linguistics13(2), 169-193.

Lu, X. (2008). Hybrid models for sense guessing of Chinese unknown words.  International Journal of Corpus Linguistics13(1), 99-128.

Lu, X. (2007). A hybrid model for Chinese word segmentation. Journal for Language Technology and Computational Linguistics22(1), 71-88.

Professional Awards and Achievements

Associate Editor, Cogent Education (2018-2019)

Top 1% of peer reviewers in social sciences, Publons Peer Review Awards (2019, 2018, 2017)

Invited Visiting Professor, Interlanguage Centre for Lexicology, English Language and Corpus Studies, Université Paris Diderot (2016)

Gil Watz Early Career Professor in Language and Linguistics (2012-2016)

Honorable Mention, Journal of Second Language Writing Best Article Award (2015)

Editorial/Advisory Board Member: Applied Corpus Linguistics (2020-), Journal of Second Language Writing (2018-), International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (2017-), TEFLIN Journal (2017-), Corpus Linguistics (2014-), The Journal of Asia TEFL (2016-2020), Cogent Education (2016-2018), The Linguistics Journal (2007-2009)