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  • The Embodied Work of Teaching

    Joan Kelly Hall and Stephen Daniel Looney

    The chapters in this volume build on a growing body of ethnomethodological conversation analytic research on teaching in order to enhance our empirical understandings of teaching as embodied, contingent and jointly achieved with students in the complex management of various courses of action and larger instructional projects. Together, the chapters document the embodied accomplishment of teaching by identifying specific resources that teachers use to manage instructional projects; demonstrate that teaching entails both alignment and affiliation work; and show the significance of using high-quality audiovisual data to document the sophisticated work of teaching. By providing analytic insight into the highly-specialized work of teaching, the studies make a significant contribution to a practice-based understanding of how the life of the classroom, as lived by its members, is accomplished.

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  • A Transdisciplinary Approach to International Teaching Assistants: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

    Stephen Daniel Looney and Shereen Bhalla

    North American universities depend on international teaching assistants (ITAs) as a substantial part of the teaching labor force, which has led to the idea of an ‘ITA problem’, a deficiency model which is framed as a divergence between ITAs’ linguistic competence and undergraduates’ and their parents’ expectations. This outdated positioning of ITAs as deficient diminishes the invaluable role they play within the academy. This book argues instead for an approach to ITA which recognizes them as multilingual, skilled, migrant professionals who participate in and are discursively constructed through various participant frameworks, modalities and activities. The chapters in this volume offer state-of-the-art research into ITA using a variety of methods and approaches, and as such constitute a transdisciplinary perspective which argues for the importance of dialogue between research and practice.

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  • Doing Replication Research in Applied Linguistics

    Porte, G., & McManus, K. (2019). Doing Replication Research in Applied Linguistics. New York: Routledge.

    Doing Replication Research in Applied Linguistics is the only book available to specifically discuss the applied aspects of how to carry out replication studies in Applied Linguistics. This text takes the reader from seeking out a suitable study for replication, through deciding on the most valuable form of replication approach, to its execution, discussion, and writing up for publication. A step-by-step decision-making approach to the activities guides the reader through the replication research process from the initial search for a target study to replicate, through the setting up, execution, analysis, and dissemination of the finished work.

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  • Multilingual Interaction and Dementia

    Plejert, C., Lindholm, C., & Schrauf, R. W. (Eds.). (2017). Multilingual Interaction in Dementia. New York: Multilingual Matters

    This book brings together international, linguistic research with a focus on interaction in multilingual encounters involving people with dementia in care and healthcare settings. The methodologies used (Conversation Analysis, Ethnography and Discursive Constructionism) capture practices on the micro-level, revealing how very subtle details may be of critical importance for the everyday well-being of participants with dementia, particularly in settings and contexts where there is a lack of a common verbal language of interlocutors, or where language abilities have been lost as a result of dementia. Chapters analyse the practices and actions employed by interlocutors to facilitate mutual understanding, enhance high-quality social relations and assure optimal care and treatment, in spite of language and cognitive difficulties, with an emphasis put on the participants’ remaining capacities, and what can be achieved between people with dementia and their interlocutors in a collaborative fashion. This book goes beyond the study of two-party communication to address multiparty and group interactions which are common in residential care and other healthcare settings and will be of interest to professionals and policy makers as well as to medical sciences and linguistics researchers and students.

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  • Mixed Methods: Interviews, Surveys, and Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Schrauf, R. W. (2016).  Mixed Methods: Interviews, Surveys, and Cross-Cultural Comparisons.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Attention to cultural variation has become an important source of insight in the social, behavioural, and health sciences. Mixed methods research provides an especially sensitive and powerful way to make systematic cross-cultural comparisons, in which qualitative approaches give a window onto cultural meaning and the phenomenological 'feel' of social life, and quantitative methods facilitate hypothesis testing and sophisticated modelling of social and behavioural phenomena. For researchers engaged in cross-cultural projects, this book offers a theory-based approach to integrating 'numbers' and 'text' based on discourse as the originary form of data collection, the method and framework of analysis, and the medium of publication. The book provides concise explanations, targeted examples, step-by-step instructions, and actual analyses of cross-cultural, quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, with special attention to language(s) and translation as clues to the study of cultural variation.

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  • Mindful L2 Teacher Education

    Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (2016). Mindful L2 Teacher Education: A  Sociocultural Perspective on Cultivating Teachers’ Professional Development. New York: Routledge

    Taking a Vygotskian sociocultural stance, this book demonstrates the meaningful role that L2 teacher educators and L2 teacher education play in the professional development of L2 teachers through systematic, intentional, goal-directed, theorized L2 teacher education pedagogy. The message is resoundingly clear: Teacher education matters! It empirically documents the ways in which engagement in the practices of L2 teacher education shape how teachers come to think about and enact their teaching within the sociocultural contexts of their learning-to-teach experiences. Providing an insider’s look at L2 teacher education pedagogy, it offers a close up look at teacher educators who are skilled at moving L2 teachers toward more theoretically and pedagogically sound instructional practices and greater levels of professional expertise.

    First, the theoretical foundation and educational rationale for exploring what happens inside the practices of L2 teacher education are established. These theoretical concepts are then used to conduct microgenetic analyses of the moment-to-moment, asynchronous, and at-a-distance dialogic interactions that take place in five distinct but sometimes overlapping practices that the authors have designed, repeatedly implemented, and subsequently collected data on in their own L2 teacher education programs. Responsive mediation is positioned as the nexus of mindful L2 teacher education and proposed as a psychological tool for teacher educators to both examine and inform the ways in which they design, enact, and assess the consequences of their own L2 teacher education pedagogy.

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  • Discourse Analysis: Putting our Worlds into Words

    Strauss, S., & Feiz, P. (2014). Discourse Analysis: Putting our Worlds into Words. New York: Routledge. 

    This introductory textbook presents a variety of approaches and perspectives that can be employed to analyze any sample of discourse. The perspectives come from multiple disciplines, including linguistics, sociolinguistics, and linguistic anthropology, all of which shed light on meaning and the interactional construction of meaning through language use. Students without prior experience in discourse analysis will appreciate and understand the micro-macro relationship of language use in everyday contexts, in professional and academic settings, in languages other than English, and in a wide variety of media outlets.

    Each chapter is supported by examples of spoken and written discourse from various types of data sources, including conversations, commercials, university lectures, textbooks, print ads, and blogs, and concludes with hands-on opportunities for readers to actually do discourse analysis on their own. Students can also utilize the book’s comprehensive companion website, with flash cards for key terms, quizzes, and additional data samples, for in-class activities and self-study.

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  • Dialogue and Dementia: Cognitive and communicative resources for engagement

    Schrauf, R. W., & Müller, N. (Eds.). (2014). Dialogue and Dementia: Cognitive and communicative resources for engagement. New York: Psychology Press. 

    This volume takes the positive view that conversation between persons with dementia and their interlocutors is a privileged site for ongoing cognitive engagement. The book aims to identify and describe specific linguistic devices or strategies at the level of turn-by-turn talk that promote and extend conversation, and to explore real-world engagements that reflect these strategies.

    Final reflections tie these linguistic strategies and practices to wider issues of the "self" and "agency" in persons with dementia. Thematically, the volume fosters an integrated perspective on communication and cognition in terms of which communicative resources are recognized as cognitive resources, and communicative interaction is treated as reflecting cognitive engagement. This reflects perspectives in cognitive anthropology and cognitive science that regard human cognitive activity as distributed and culturally rooted.

    This volume is intended for academic researchers and advanced students in applied linguistics, linguistic and medical anthropology, nursing, and social gerontology; and practice professionals in speech-language pathology and geropsychology.

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  • Computational Methods for Corpus Annotation and Analysis

    Lu, X. (2014). Computational Methods for Corpus Annotation and Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer. 

    In the past few decades the use of increasingly large text corpora has grown rapidly in language and linguistics research. This was enabled by remarkable strides in natural language processing (NLP) technology, technology that enables computers to automatically and efficiently process, annotate and analyze large amounts of spoken and written text in linguistically and/or pragmatically meaningful ways. It has become more desirable than ever before for language and linguistics researchers who use corpora in their research to gain an adequate understanding of the relevant NLP technology to take full advantage of its capabilities.

    This volume provides language and linguistics researchers with an accessible introduction to the state-of-the-art NLP technology that facilitates automatic annotation and analysis of large text corpora at both shallow and deep linguistic levels. The book covers a wide range of computational tools for lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and discourse analysis, together with detailed instructions on how to obtain, install and use each tool in different operating systems and platforms. The book illustrates how NLP technology has been applied in recent corpus-based language studies and suggests effective ways to better integrate such technology in future corpus linguistics research.

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  • Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education

    Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2014). Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education.

    **Winner of the 33rd MLA Kenneth W. Mildenberger Award**

    Explicating clearly and concisely the full implication of a praxis-oriented language pedagogy, this book argues for an approach to language teaching grounded in a significant scientific theory of human learning—a stance that rejects the consumer approach to theory and the dichotomy between theory and practice that dominates SLA and language teaching. This approach is based on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, according to which the two activities are inherently connected so that each is necessarily rooted in the other; practice is the research laboratory where the theory is tested. From the perspective of language education, this is what is meant by the ‘pedagogical imperative.’

    Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education:

    • Elaborates a new approach to dealing with the relationship between theory and practice—an approach grounded in praxis—the dialectical unity of theory and practice
    • Presents an analysis of empirical research illustrating praxis-based principles in real language classrooms
    • Brings together cognitive linguistics and sociocultural theory - the former provides the theoretical knowledge of language required of praxis and the latter furnishes the theoretical principles of learning and development also called for in a praxis approach
    • Offers recommendations for redesigning teacher education programs
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  • Social and Cultural Aspects of Language Learning in Study Abroad

    Kinginger, C. (Ed.). (2013). Social and Cultural Aspects of Language Learning in Study Abroad. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 

    The papers in this volume offer a sampling of contemporary efforts to update the portrayal of study abroad in the applied linguistics literature through attention to its social and cultural aspects. The volume illustrates diversification of theory and method, refinement of approaches to social interactive language use, and expansion in the range of populations and languages under scrutiny. Part I offers a topical orientation, outlining the rationale for the project. Part II presents six qualitative case studies adopting sociocultural, activity theoretical, postructuralist, or discourse analytic methodologies. The four chapters in Part III illustrate a variety of approaches and foci in research on the pragmatic capabilities of study abroad participants in relation to second language identities. The volume will be of interest to a broad audience of applied linguistics researchers, language educators, and professionals engaged in the design, oversight, and assessment of study abroad programs.

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  • Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations

    Canagarajah, S. (2013). Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. New York: Routledge.

    ***Winner of the 33rd MLA Mina P. Shaughnessy Prize***

    ***Winner of the 2014 BAAL Book Prize***


    Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations introduces a new way of looking at the use of English within a global context. Challenging traditional approaches in second language acquisition and English language teaching, this book incorporates recent advances in multilingual studies, sociolinguistics, and new literacy studies to articulate a new perspective on this area. Canagarajah argues that multilinguals merge their own languages and values into English, which opens up various negotiation strategies that help them decode other unique varieties of English and construct new norms.

    Incisive and groundbreaking, this will be essential reading for anyone interested in multilingualism, world Englishes and intercultural communication.

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  • Literacy as Translingual Practice Between Communities and Classrooms

    Canagarajah, S. (Ed.) (2013). Literacy as Translingual Practice Between Communities and Classrooms. New York: Routledge.

    The term translingual highlights the reality that people always shuttle across languages, communicate in hybrid languages and, thus, enjoy multilingual competence. In the context of migration, transnational economic and cultural relations, digital communication, and globalism, increasing contact is taking place between languages and communities. In these contact zones new genres of writing and new textual conventions are emerging that go beyond traditional dichotomies that treat languages as separated from each other, and texts and writers as determined by one language or the other.

    Pushing forward a translingual orientation to writing—one that is in tune with the new literacies and communicative practices flowing into writing classrooms and demanding new pedagogies and policies— this volume is structured around five concerns: refining the theoretical premises, learning from community practices, debating the role of code meshed products, identifying new research directions, and developing sound pedagogical applications. These themes are explored by leading scholars from L1 and L2 composition, rhetoric and applied linguistics, education theory and classroom practice, and diverse ethnic rhetorics. Timely and much needed, Literacy as Translingual Practice is essential reading for students, researchers, and practitioners across these fields.

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  • Embodiment via Body Parts: Studies from various languages and cultures

    Maalei, Z. A., & Yu. N. (2011). Embodiment via Body Parts: Studies from various languages and cultures. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    Research on the "embodiment hypothesis" within cognitive linguistics and beyond is growing steadily aiming to bridge language, culture, and cognition. This volume seeks to address the question regarding what specific roles individual body parts play in the embodied conceptualization of emotions, mental faculties, character traits, cultural values, and so on, in various cultures, as manifested in their respective languages. It brings together some linguistic evidence that sheds light on the embodied nature of human cognition from languages as diverse as Arabic, Chinese, Danish, English, Estonian, German, Greek, Indonesian, Japanese, Persian, Spanish, and Turkish. The studies in this volume also show how embodiment is mediated in those languages through such cognitive mechanisms as metonymy and metaphor. 

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  • Research on Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective on Professional Development

    Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (Eds.). (2011). Research on Second Language Teacher Education: A sociocultural perspective on professional development. New York: Routledge.

    Embracing a sociocultural perspective on human cognition and employing an array of methodological tools for data collection and analysis, this volume documents the complexities of second language teachers’ professional development in diverse L2 teacher education programs around the world, including Asia, South America, Europe, and North America, and traces that development both over time and within the broader cultural, historical and institutional settings and circumstances of teachers’ work.

    This systematic examination of teacher professional development illuminates in multiple ways the discursive practices that shape teachers’ knowing, thinking, and doing and provides a window into how alternative mediational means can create opportunities for teachers to move toward more theoretically and pedagogically sound instructional practices within the settings and circumstances of their work. The chapters represent both native and nonnative English speaking pre-service and in-service L2 teachers at all levels from K-12 through higher education, and examine significant challenges that are present in L2 teacher education programs. 

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  • L2 Interactional Competence and Development

    Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Doehler, S. P. (Eds.). (2011). L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.  

    Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to participate competently and creatively in their L2 encounters? And how useful is conversation analysis in capturing the specific development of individuals’ interactional competencies in specific practices across time? Rather than treating participants in L2 interactions as deficient speakers, the book begins with the assumption that those who interact using a second language possess interactional competencies. The studies set out to identify what these competencies are and how they change across time. By doing so, they address some of the difficult and yet unresolved issues that arise when it comes to comparing actions or practices across different moments in time.

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  • Teaching and Researching: Language and Culture

    Hall, J. K. (2010) (2nd). Teaching and Researching: Language and Culture. New York: Routledge.

    Language and culture are concepts increasingly found at the heart of developments in applied linguistics and related fields. Taken together, they can provide interesting and useful insights into the nature of language acquisition and expression. In this volume, Joan Kelly Hall gives a perspective on the nature of language and culture looking at how the use of language in real-world situations helps us understand how language is used to construct our social and cultural worlds. The conceptual maps on the nature of language, culture and learning provided in this text help orient readers to some current theoretical and practical activities taking place in applied linguistics. They also help them begin to chart their own explorations in the teaching and researching of language and culture.

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  • Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Johnson, K. E.  (2009). Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective. New York: Routledge.

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the epistemological underpinnings of a sociocultural perspective on human learning and addresses in detail what this perspective has to offer the field of second language teacher education. Captured through five changing points of view, it argues that a sociocultural perspective on human learning changes the way we think about how teachers learn to teach, how teachers think about language, how teachers teach second languages, the broader social, cultural, and historical macro-structures that are ever present and ever changing in the second language teaching profession, and what constitutes second language teacher professional development. Overall, it clearly and accessibly makes the case that a sociocultural perspective on human learning reorients how the field understands and supports the professional development of second language teachers. 

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  • The Chinese HEART in a Cognitive Perspective: Culture, body, and language

    Yu, N. (2009). The Chinese HEART in a Cognitive Perspective: Culture, body, and language. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 

    This book is a cognitive semantic study of the Chinese conceptualization of the heart, traditionally seen as the central faculty of cognition. The Chinese word xin, which primarily denotes the heart organ, covers the meanings of both "heart" and "mind" as understood in English, which upholds a heart-head dichotomy. In contrast to the Western dualist view, Chinese takes on a more holistic view that sees the heart as the center of both emotions and thought. The contrast characterizes two cultural traditions that have developed different conceptualizations of person, self, and agent of cognition.

    The concept of "heart" lies at the core of Chinese thought and medicine, and its importance to Chinese culture is extensively manifested in the Chinese language. Diachronically, this book traces the roots of its conception in ancient Chinese philosophy and traditional Chinese medicine. Along the synchronic dimension, it not only makes a systematic analysis of conventionalized expressions that reflect the underlying cultural models and conceptualizations, as well as underlying conceptual metaphors and metonymies, but also attempts a textual analysis of an essay and a number of poems for their metaphoric and metonymic images and imports contributing to the cultural models and conceptualizations. It also takes up a comparative perspective that sheds light on similarities and differences between Western and Chinese cultures in the understanding of the heart, brain, body, mind, self, and person.

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  • From Body to Meaning in Culture: Papers on cognitive semantic studies of Chinese

    Yu, N. (2009). From Body to Meaning in Culture: Papers on cognitive semantic studies of Chinese. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    From the perspective of Cognitive Semantics and Conceptual Metaphor Theory, this collection of papers looks at the relationship between language, body, culture, and cognition. In particular, it looks into the embodied nature of human language and cognition as arising from and situated in the cultural environment. The papers in this collection all attempt to demonstrate, from different angles, the language-body connections that may reflect, to some extent, the mind-body connections as manifested in the interaction between the body and the physical and cultural world. They study language in a systematic way as a window into the human mind. As a collection of papers that focuses on the study of Chinese with a comparative viewpoint on English, it sheds light on the bodily basis of human meaning and understanding in particular cultural contexts. 

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  • Sociocultural Theory and the Genesis of Second Language Development

    Lantolf, J P., & Thorne, S. L. (2009). Sociocultural Theory and the Genesis of Second Language Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

    Integrates theory, research, and practice on the learning of second and foreign languages as informed by sociocultural and activity theory. It familiarizes students, teachers, and other researchers who do not work within the theory with its principal claims and constructs in particular as they relate to second language research. The book also describes and illustrates the use of activity theory to support practical and conceptual innovations in second language education.

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  • Language Learning and Study Abroad: A critical reading of research

    Kinginger, C. (2009). Language Learning and Study Abroad: A critical reading of research. New York, London: Palgreve Macmillan.

    What do we know about language learning in study abroad? The research base on this topic has expanded to include a wide variety of approaches and methods. In addition to documenting the outcomes of student sojourns overseas, researchers have attempted to understand the relationship between language learning and the qualities of the experience. Now in paperback, this book provides a wide-ranging overview and critical assessment of research on language learning and student mobility, taking the reader on a tour through the history and contemporary landscape of this field. The book opens with an overview of policy related to language education in study abroad, then explores various ways in which researchers have documented the language-related outcomes of these programs. The focus then turns to the nature of student experiences and the role of identity in classrooms, homestays, and informal interactions. The book ends with practical suggestions to teachers, program designers, and policy makers to help students make the most of study abroad.

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  • Contemporary Study Abroad and Foreign Language Learning: An activist’s guidebook for language educators

    Kinginger, C. (2009). Contemporary Study Abroad and Foreign Language Learning: An activist’s guidebook for language educators. University Park, PA: CALPER Publications. 

    The author explains why language educators and study abroad professionals should develop an activist stance in promoting language learning in study abroad programs, and provides tools to help promote meaningful sojourns abroad for their language students. These tools include knowledge about what aspects of language are best learned in host communities and about how successful students take advantage of study abroad to enhance their language ability. They also include stories about the kinds of conflicts students may encounter in interaction with their hosts, with guidance about how to turn these conflicts into opportunities for learning. Finally this guidebook offers specific suggestions for ways to prepare students for their stay abroad, to enhance their chances at success while abroad, and to nurture the abilities they have developed outside the classroom. Suggested tasks and discussion topics are proposed throughout the guidebook. 

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  • Language Development Over the Lifespan

    de Bot, K., & Schrauf, R. W. (Eds.). (2009). Language Development Over the Lifespan. New York: Routledge.

    Language Development Over the Lifespan is a reference resource for those conducting research on language development and the aging process, and a supplementary textbook for courses in applied linguistics/bilingualism programs that focus on language attrition/aging and adult literacy development in second languages. It offers an integrative approach to language development that examines changes in language over a lifetime, organized by different theoretical perspectives, which are presented by well-known international scholars.

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  • Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages

    Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (Eds.). (2008). Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages. Sheffield, UK: Equinox.

    L.S. Vygotsky, the renowned Russian psychologist, argued that the true test of any scientific theory is not the contribution it makes to our understanding of the object of study but the extent to which it improves the concrete practical activities of people, including those that take place in educational settings. The fourteen original chapters included in the present volume document innovations in second and foreign language teaching that are rooted in Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. Researchers and language teaching practitioners will find implementations at the classroom and programmatic levels of Vygotskian principles and concepts, including cognitive mediation, the zone of proximal development, activity theory, internalization, verbalization, and materialization.

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  • Culture, Body, and Language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages

    Sharifian, F., Dirven, R., Yu, N., & Niemeier, S. (Eds.). Culture, Body, and Language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton. 

    One of the central themes in cognitive linguistics is the uniquely human development of some higher potential called the "mind" and, more particularly, the intertwining of body and mind, which has come to be known as embodiment. Several books and volumes have explored this theme in length. However, the interaction between culture, body and language has not received the due attention that it deserves. Naturally, any serious exploration of the interface between body, language and culture would require an analytical tool that would capture the ways in which different cultural groups conceptualize their feelings, thinking, and other experiences in relation to body and language. A well-established notion that appears to be promising in this direction is that of cultural models, constituting the building blocks of a group's cultural cognition.

    The volume results from an attempt to bring together a group of scholars from various language backgrounds to make a collective attempt to explore the relationship between body, language and culture by focusing on conceptualizations of the heart and other internal body organs across a number of languages. The general aim of this venture is to explore (a) the ways in which internal body organs have been employed in different languages to conceptualize human experiences such as emotions and/or workings of the mind, and (b) the cultural models that appear to account for the observed similarities as well as differences of the various conceptualizations of internal body organs. The volume as a whole engages not only with linguistic analyses of terms that refer to internal body organs across different languages but also with the origin of the cultural models that are associated with internal body organs in different cultural systems, such as ethnomedical and religious traditions. Some contributions also discuss their findings in relations to some philosophical doctrines that have addressed the relationship between mind, body, and language, such as that of Descartes. 

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  • Language Learning in Study Abroad: Case studies of Americans in France

    Kinginger, C. (2008). Language Learning in Study Abroad: Case studies of Americans in France. The Modern Language Journal, 92: 1–124. (Monograph Issue).  

    This monograph is the first book-length, in-depth analysis of the acquisition of an L2 by individuals studying abroad, using Sociocultural Theory as a theoretical frame. 

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  • Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages

    Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (Eds.). (2006). Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 

    This book questions assumptions about the nature of language and how language is conceptualized. Looking at diverse contexts from sign languages in Indonesia to literacy practices in Brazil, from hip-hop in the US to education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, this book forcefully argues that a critique of common linguistic and metalinguistic suppositions is not only a conceptual but also a sociopolitical necessity. Just as many notions of language are highly suspect, so too are many related concepts premised on a notion of discrete languages, such as language rights, mother tongues, multilingualism, or code-switching. Definitions of language in language policies, education and assessment have material and often harmful consequences for people. Unless we actively engage with the history of invention of languages in order to radically change and reconstitute the ways in which languages are taught and conceptualized, language studies will not be able to improve the social welfare of language users.

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  • Islam and English in the Post-9/11 Era

    Karmani, S., & Makoni, S. (Eds.). (2005). Islam and English in the Post-9/11 Era.  Journal of Language, Identity and Education (volume 4)

    A Special Issue of the Journal of Language, Identity, and Education. Volume 4, Issue 2, 2005, pp. 85-177.

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  • Language and Aging in Multilingual Contexts

    de Bot, K., & Makoni, S. (2005). Language and Aging in Multilingual Contexts. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 

    In this book different aspects of language and aging are discussed. While language spoken by and language spoken with elderly people have been treated as different areas of research, it is argued here that from a dynamical system perspective the two are closely interrelated. In addition to overviews of research on language and aging, a number of projects on this topic in multilingual settings are presented.

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  • Dialogue with Bakhtin on Second and Foreign Language Learning

    Hall, J. K., Vitanova, G., & Marchenkova, L. A. (Eds.). (2004). Dialogue with Bakhtin on Second and Foreign Language Learning. New York: Routledge. 

    This volume is the first to explore links between the Russian linguist Mikhail Bakhtin's theoretical insights about language and practical concerns with second and foreign language learning and teaching. Situated within a strong conceptual framework and drawing from a rich empirical base, it reflects recent scholarship in applied linguistics that has begun to move away from formalist views of language as universal, autonomous linguistic systems, and toward an understanding of language as dynamic collections of cultural resources. According to Bakhtin, the study of language is concerned with the dialogue existing between linguistic elements and the uses to which they are put in response to the conditions of the moment. Such a view of language has significant implications for current understandings of second- and foreign-language learning.

    The contributors draw on some of Bakhtin's more significant concepts, such as dialogue, utterance, heteroglossia, voice, and addressivity to examine real world contexts of language learning. The chapters address a range of contexts including elementary- and university-level English as a second language and foreign language classrooms and adult learning situations outside the formal classroom. The text is arranged in two parts. Part I, "Contexts of Language Learning and Teaching," contains seven chapters that report on investigations into specific contexts of language learning and teaching. The chapters in Part II, "Implications for Theory and Practice," present broader discussions on second and foreign language learning using Bakhtin's ideas as a springboard for thinking.

    This is a groundbreaking volume for scholars in applied linguistics, language education, and language studies with an interest in second and foreign language learning; for teacher educators; and for teachers of languages from elementary to university levels. It is highly relevant as a text for graduate-level courses in applied linguistics and second- and foreign-language education.

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  • Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice

    Canagarajah, A. S. (2004). Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice. New York: Routledge.

    This volume inserts the place of the local in theorizing about language policies and practices in applied linguistics. While the effects of globalization around the world are being discussed in such diverse circles as corporations, law firms, and education, and while the spread of English has come to largely benefit those in positions of power, relatively little has been said about the impact of globalization at the local level, directly or indirectly. Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice is unique in focusing specifically on the outcomes of globalization in and among the communities affected by these changes. The authors make a case for why it is important for local social practices, communicative conventions, linguistic realities, and knowledge paradigms to actively inform language policies and practices for classrooms and communities in specific contexts, and to critically inform those pertaining to other communities.

    Engaging with the dominant paradigms in the discipline of applied linguistics, the chapters include research relating to second language acquisition, sociolinguistics, literacy, and language planning. The majority of chapters are case studies of specific contexts and communities, focused on situations of language teaching. Beyond their local contexts these studies are important for initiating discussion of their relevance for other, different communities and contexts. Taken together, the chapters in this book approach the task of reclaiming and making space for the local by means of negotiating with the present and the global. They illuminate the paradox that the local contains complex values of diversity, multilingualism, and plurality that can help to reconceive the multilingual society and education for postmodern times.

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  • Ageing in Africa: Sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches

    Makoni, S., & Stroeken, K. (Eds.). (2002).  Ageing in Africa: Sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches. Farnham, UK: Ashgate. 

    African gerontology has expanded dramatically as a discipline with population ageing and its consequences for societies and for individual experiences of ageing becoming prominent issues all over the continent. This volume therefore brings together some of the most prolific and skilful researchers working on ageing in Africa today. The book is based on sociolinguistic and anthropological research conducted in different regions of Southern Africa, West and East Africa, and in different types of communities, rural, urban and nomadic. Hence the book is able to adopt a pan-African slant to issues about ageing. The data and their interpretation are characterized by the richness, typicity and authenticity of both narratives and ethnographical fieldwork. Because the authors aim to present insider views and experiences of ageing in Africa from these diverse contexts, the book is able to distil common and variable aspects of ageing in Africa. These permit a formulation of critical models of ageing which are sensitive to the elderly person’s experience and to the dynamics of the historical contexts in which are sensitive to the elderly person’s experience and to the dynamics of the historical contexts in which elderly persons have lived. Critical models of ageing appear to shed a new light on the social change that affects all of us today. (e.g. post-apartheid, post-colonialism).

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  • Teachers' Narrative Inquiry as Professional Development

    Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (Eds.). (2002). Teachers' Narrative Inquiry as Professional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

    This text's intent is to bring into our professional conversations teachers ways of knowing” – that is, teachers understanding of the experiences that have informed their language teaching. By making teachers  ways of knowing public, open to review, and accessible to others in this profession, this text hopes to validate, in ways afforded to other forms of scholarly work, teachers own understanding of the activity of language teaching.

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  • Critical Academic Writing and Multilingual Students

    Canagarajah, A. S. (2002). Critical Academic Writing and Multilingual Students. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

    The critical approach to L2 writing is arguably one of the most significant recent developments in L2 writing pedagogy. A. Suresh Canagarajah provides a thorough discussion of this topic in Critical Academic Writing and Multilingual Students .

    This volume facilitates teacher self-reflection and enables readers to better understand the motivations and pedagogical implications—especially for L2 writing—of a more openly pedagogical approach.

    Critical Academic Writing and Multilingual Students explains what it means to commit to an academic pedagogy, in terms of form, self, content, and community—and what it can accomplish in the L2 writing classroom. It's a guide for writing teachers who wish to embark on a journey toward increased critical awareness of the role they play, or potentially could play, in the lives of their students.

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  • Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas

    Ball, A., Makoni, S., Smitherman, G., & Spears. A. K. (2002). Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas. New York: Routledge.

    Enslavement, forced migration, war and colonization have led to the global dispersal of Black communities and to the fragmentation of common experiences.

    The majority of Black language researchers explore the social and linguistic phenomena of individual Black communities, without looking at Black experiences outside a given community. This groundbreaking collection re-orders the elitist and colonial elements of language studies by drawing together the multiple perspectives of Black language researchers. In doing so, the book recognises and formalises the existence of a "Black Linguistic Perspective" highlights the contributions of Black language researchers in the field.

    Written exclusively by Black scholars on behalf of, and in collaboration with local communities, the book looks at the commonalities and differences among Black speech communities in Africa and the Diaspora. Topics include: the OJ Simpson trial; language issues in Southern Africa and Francophone West Africa; the language of Hip Hop; the language of the Rastafaria in Jamaica. 

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  • Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning

    Lantolf, J. P. (Ed.). (2000). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

    This book represents a major statement of the current research being conducted on the learning of second languages from a sociocultural perspective. The book is divided into a theoretical and an empirical part. Specific topics covered include: learning and teaching languages in the zone of proximal development; L1 mediation in the acquisition of L2 grammar; sociocultural theory as a theory of second language learning; gestural mediation in a second language; and constructing a self through a second language.

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  • The Sociopolitics of English Language Teaching

    Hall, J. K., & Eggington, W. G. (Eds.). (2000). The Sociopolitics of English Language Teaching. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 

    Discussions on the teaching of English rarely focus on the more macro aspects of English language teaching including such political, cultural and social issues as language policies and their implications for school practices. Although these issues may seem less tangible and relevant to our immediate needs, the political, cultural, and social dimensions of English language teaching are central to our profession. Decisions regarding language policies, both formal and informal; cultural expectations about teacher and student and the roles of the English language and other languages; and our identities in terms of ethnicity and nationality influence what we do in the classroom. Our actions, in turn, influence the social, academic and linguistic consequences for our learners. It is to these larger concerns of English language teaching that this text is addressed.

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  • Second and Foreign Language Learning Through Classroom Interaction

    Hall, J. K., & Verplaetse, L. S. (Eds.). (2000). Second and Foreign Language Learning Through Classroom Interaction. New York: Routledge. 

    This volume brings together the current theoretical interest in reconceptualizing second and foreign language learning from a sociocultural perspective on language and learning, with practical concerns about second and foreign language pedagogy. It presents a set of studies whose focus is on the empirical description of particular practices constructed in classroom interaction that promote the learning of a second or foreign language. The authors examine in detail the processes by which the learning of additional languages is accomplished in the interaction of a variety of classrooms and in a variety of languages. Not only will the findings from the studies reported in this volume help to lay a foundation for the development of a more expansive, sociocultural model of second and foreign language learning, but on a more practical level they will help language educators in creating a set of principles for identifying and sustaining classroom interactional practices that foster additional language development.

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  • Understanding Language Teaching: Reasoning in Action

    Johnson, K. E. (1999). Understanding Language Teaching: Reasoning in Action. Boston: Heinle, Cengage Learning.

    Teachers are encouraged to reflect on their classroom practice by thinking critically about their own teaching, their colleagues’ teaching, and the environments in which they work. The book examines the issues of language teaching from three distinct perspectives: Teachers’ Voices, which are authentic accounts of teachers’ experiences; Frameworks, which are comprehensive discussions of theoretical issues; and Investigations, which are inquiry-based activities. 

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  • Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching

    Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

    ***Winner of the MLA 1999 Mina P. Shaughnessy Prize***

    ***Shortlisted for the BAAL Book Prize***

    This book describes the creative strategies employed by teachers and students in periphery communities in order to use the English language in a manner that suits their needs while subtly resisting the linguistic imperialism that many scholars have identified as the consequence of the global ELT enterprise. After developing trends and ideas from those oppositional strategies, the book goes on to outline elements of a critical pedagogy suitable for ELT in formerly colonized communities.

    As the English language continues to spread globally, this book will be essential reading for English teachers and applied linguists wishing to understand the ideological challenges in the periphery. Curriculum planners and policy makers will also find it a necessary aid to exploring the pedagogical alternatives.

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  • The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A perspective from Chinese

    Yu, N., (1998). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A perspective from Chinese. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 

    This comparative study of Chinese and English metaphor contributes to the search for metaphoric universals by placing the contemporary theory of metaphor in a broad cross-linguistic and cross-cultural perspective. The author explores to what degree abstract reasoning is metaphorical and which conceptual metaphors are culture specific, wide spread or universal in a cognitive and cultural context.

    The empirical studies presented reinforce the view that metaphor is the main mechanism through which abstract concepts are comprehended and abstract reasoning is performed. They also support, from the perspective of Chinese, the candidacy of some conceptual metaphors for metaphorical universals. These include, for instance, the ANGER IS HEAT metaphor, the HAPPY IS UP metaphor (emotions), the TIME AS SPACE metaphor, and the Event Structure Metaphor. It seems that these conceptual metaphors are grounded in some basic human experiences that may be universal to all human beings. 

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  • Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms

    Johnson, K. E. (1995). Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

    Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms offers an integrated view of communication in second language classrooms - one that acknowledges the importance of what teachers and students bring to the class environment, as well as what actually occurs during face-to-face communication within the classroom. Drawing on actual classroom transcripts from a range of instructional settings, Johnson constructs a conceptual framework through which teachers can recognize how patterns of classroom communication are established and maintained, how these patterns affect students' participation in classroom events, and how their participation shapes the ways they use language for learning and their opportunities for second language acquisition. Relevant research is presented from the areas of classroom discourse, language in communities, teacher cognition, classroom learning, and second language acquisition.

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  • Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research

    Lantolf, J. P., & Appel, G. (Eds.) (1994). Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 

    This text brings together the work of scholars attempting to extend Vygotsky's theory to second language research. The papers included, are organized according to three of the major topics of interest in Vygotskian research: zone of proximal development, inner and private speech, and activity theory. All of the papers report on the results of empirical research carried on in these three areas. Readers will recognize the potential sociocultural theory and research has for developing a fuller understanding of L2 learning and use.

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  • Grammar, Meaning, and Concepts: A Discourse-based Approach to English Grammar

    Strauss, S., Feiz, P., & Xiang, X. (2018). Grammar, Meaning, and Concepts: A Discourse-Based Approach to English Grammar.  New York: Routledge.

    Grammar, Meaning, and Concepts: A Discourse-based Approach to English Grammar is a book for language teachers and learners that focuses on the meanings of grammatical constructions within discourse, rather than on language as structure governed by rigid rules. This text emphasizes the ways in which users of language construct meaning, express viewpoints, and depict imageries using the conceptual, meaning-filled categories that underlie all of grammar. Written by a team of authors with years of experience teaching grammar to future teachers of English, this book puts grammar in the context of real language and illustrates grammar in use through an abundance of authentic data examples. Each chapter also provides a variety of activities that focus on grammar, genre, discourse, and meaning, which can be used as they are or can be adapted for classroom practice. The activities are also designed to raise awareness about discourse, grammar, and meaning in all facets of everyday life, and can be used as springboards for upper high school, undergraduate, and graduate level research projects and inquiry-based grammatical analysis. Grammar, Meaning, and Concepts is an ideal textbook for those in the areas of teacher education, discourse analysis, applied linguistics, second language teaching, ESL, EFL, and communications who are looking to teach and learn grammar from a dynamic perspective.

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  • The Routledge Handbook of Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Development

    Lantolf, J. P., Poehner, M. E., & Swain, M. (Eds.) (2018). The Routledge Handbook of Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Development. New York: Routledge.

    The Routledge Handbook of Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Development is the first comprehensive overview of the field of sociocultural second language acquisition (SLA). In 35 chapters, each written by an expert in the area, this book offers perspectives on both the theoretical and practical sides of the field. This Handbook covers a broad range of topics, divided into several major sections, including:

    • concepts and principles as related to second language development;
    • concept-based instruction;
    • dynamic assessment and other assessment based on sociocultural theory (SCT);
    • literacy and content-based language teaching;
    • bilingual/multilingual education;
    • SCT and technology; and
    • teacher education.

    This is the ideal resource for graduate students and researchers working in the areas of SLA and second language development.

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  • Essentials of SLA for L2 Teachers

    Hall, J. K. (2019). Essentials of SLA for L2 Teachers. New York: Routledge.

    Essentials of SLA for L2 Teachers: A Transdisciplinary Framework presents an accessible and comprehensive account of current understandings of second language acquisition (SLA) geared towards those studying to become L2 teachers. Grounded in the pragmatic and problem-oriented transdisciplinary framework of SLA, this textbook draws connections between SLA research and practices for L2 teaching. It aims to build L2 teacher expertise by strengthening teachers’ understandings of the many facets of L2 learning and their skills for designing transformative learning environments in their teaching contexts. The author includes pedagogical implications and inquiry-based activities in each chapter that engage readers in further explorations of the topics covered in the chapter. Short and straightforward, Essentials of SLA for L2 Teachers is the ideal main resource for SLA courses taught at undergraduate and graduate-level teaching programs.

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  • Computational and corpus approaches to Chinese language learning

    Lu, X., & Chen, B. (Eds.).

    This book presents a collection of original research articles that showcase the state of the art of research in corpus and computational linguistic approaches to Chinese language teaching, learning and assessment. It offers a comprehensive set of corpus resources and natural language processing tools that are useful for teaching, learning and assessing Chinese as a second or foreign language; methods for implementing such resources and techniques in Chinese pedagogy and assessment; as well as research findings on the effectiveness of using such resources and techniques in various aspects of Chinese pedagogy and assessment.

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  • Japanese/Korean Linguistics

    Iwasaki, S., Strauss, S., Fukuda, S., Jun, S.-A., Sohn, S.-O., & Zuraw, K. (Eds.), Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Vol. 26. Stanford University: CLSI Publications.

    Japanese and Korean are typologically similar, with linguistic phenomena in one often having counterparts in the other. The Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference provides a forum for research, particularly through comparative study, of both languages. The papers in this volume are from the twenty-fifth conference, which was held at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. They include essays on the phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, historical linguistics, discourse analysis, prosody, and psycholinguistics of both languages. Such comparative studies deepen our understanding of both languages and will be a useful reference for students and scholars in either field.


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  • Language Planning and Policy

    Abdelhay, A., Makoni, S., & Severo, C., (eds.)

    Language Planning and Policy:
    Ideologies, Ethnicities, and Semiotic Spaces of Power

    Language policy is heterogeneous and varies according to its object, levels of intervention, purpose, participants and institutions involved, underlying language ideologies, local contexts, power relations, and historical contexts. This volume offers unique cross-cultural perspectives on language planning and policy in diverse African and Middle Eastern contexts, including South Africa, Bahrain, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Zambia, and Algeria. The African diaspora is also considered, as is the case of Brazil. By bringing together diverse contexts in Africa and the Middle East, this volume encourages a dialogue in the burgeoning scholarship on language policies in different regions of Africa and the Middle East in order to inspect the intersection between language policy discourses and their social, political, and educational functions.



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  • Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South

    Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S. (2020)

    Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South provides an original appraisal of the latest innovations and challenges in applied linguistics from the perspective of the Global South. Global South perspectives are encapsulated in struggles for basic, economic, political and social transformation in an inequitable world, and are not confined to the geographical South. Taking a critical perspective on Southern theories, demonstrating why it is important to view the world from Southern perspectives and why such positions must be open to critical investigation, this book:

    • charts the impacts of these theories on approaches to multilingualism, language learning, language in education, literacy and diversity, language rights and language policy;
    • provides broad historical and geographical understandings of the movement towards a Southern perspective and draws on Indigenous and Southern ways of thinking that challenge mainstream viewpoints;
    • seeks to develop alternative understandings of applied linguistics, expand the intellectual repertoires of the discipline, and challenge the complicities between applied linguistics, colonialism, and capitalism.
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